Creative Workforce - Creation - Overview

Arts graduates face challenging conditions entering the workforce, with the lowest employment prospects of any field of education

Few professional artists are fully employed or practising full-time (discussed in depth in the following section, ‘Artist incomes’), and arts graduates face correspondingly challenging conditions entering the workforce.

According to Graduate Careers Australia, just 48 percent of ‘Visual/Performing arts’ graduates are working full time four months after graduating - a lower proportion than all other fields of education reported in 2013.

The proportion has declined since 2007, when 67 percent of graduates were working full time. As shown in the graph below, the decline has been more marked than that seen for graduates in other fields.

Graduate Careers Australia also ranks ‘Art and Design’ as the 22nd field of education out of 23 in terms of starting salaries, just behind Pharmacy (pre-reg).

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Australian artists are highly educated and complement formal training with other types of training and professional development

Australian professional artists are highly educated and have done various types of training to become a professional artist.

Two thirds of artists have completed a university degree, compared to only one quarter of the workforce in general.

However, artists do a variety of training to become an artist. While formal training[1] plays a key role, around half of artists have done private training (48 percent), learning on the job (53 percent) or been self-taught (52 percent).


[1] Formal training refers to training that leads to an award given by an institution such as a university, CAE, Institute of Technology, Teacher’s College, TAFE, Art/Craft/Design school, drama school, dance school, music school/conservatorium etc.

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The average artist spends four years on basic training – and continues training throughout their career

On average it takes artists around four years of training to gain a basic qualification in their principal artistic occupation. Although most practicing professional artists attain their basic qualification in 3 – 5 years, the time taken ranges (for example, 15 percent of artists take over 10 years).

Training continues throughout their career for many artists and most artists acknowledge that they improve their skills throughout their career through experience and learning on the job. Many of the professional artists surveyed by Throsby and Zednik were still engaged in some form of training. Over one third were still engaged in formal/private or other training (37 percent), 29 percent were engaged in teaching themselves and 35 percent were still learning on the job.

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Public Value - Participation - Overview
Tag : education

Australian attitudes to the arts are increasingly positive with 89 percent of people in agreement that 'The arts should be an important part of the education of every Australian' in 2013.

Over eight in ten agreed that the arts make for a richer and more meaningful life (85 percent) and it is exciting to see new styles and types of art (84 percent), significant increases from 2009.

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Career prospects and earning potential - Creation - Music

Relative to those involved in music, there are few paid employment opportunities

Relative to the number of people studying and practising music, employment levels in paid musician occupations are low.

Recent ABS figures show around 500,000 adult Australians were involved in writing song lyrics, or mixing or composing music, including digital composition in 2010-11. Around 950,000 were involved in singing or playing a musical instrument.

A proportion of these also had a tertiary qualification relating to their participation. Of those engaged in singing or playing a musical instrument, 176,100 said they had had a relevant qualification, and 37,700 have a qualification relevant to writing music.

Very few of these participants earned any wage or salary for their engagement. Further, most of those who did earned less than 25 percent of their total income in this way.

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Tag : education

While women represent 45 percent of those with a music qualification and 50 percent of those that study music, they make up just 20 percent of those registered to receive royalties.

There are significantly more male songwriters and musicians in Australia.

Unlike the musician population, two thirds of all music teachers are women, highlighting different career paths for men and women in the music industry.

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Music teaching is the biggest employment market in the music industry

Practising professional musicians note some of the factors inhibiting their professional development are a lack of work opportunities, lack of financial return from creative practice, and a lack of time to do creative work due to other pressures and responsibilities.

With too few professional music opportunities, professional musicians and other artists undertake arts-related work (mainly teaching music) and non-arts related work to support their creative practice.

Their non-creative work generally generates higher financial returns than creative work (musicians generate 44 percent of their income from creative practice, despite devoting 52 percent of their working hours).

The 2006 Census found high and increasing levels of employment in music teaching relative to other music occupations, which remained stable in the 2011 Census.

In terms of the size of the labour market, this means teaching music is one of the best opportunities for finding work in music.

Unlike the musician population, two thirds of all music teachers are women, suggesting women are working as teachers as opposed to practising artists.

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Attitudes to engagement in music - Participation - Music

Playing a musical instrument is seen as a valuable activity

Respondents to a survey of 1,000 Australian households agreed that playing an instrument is fun, a good means of expression and provides a sense of personal accomplishment.

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Most people agree playing music brings the family together

A majority also agreed that music is a very important part of life and brings the family together.

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Many people wish they had learned to play a musical instrument

Many of those who had never played an instrument wished they had – but fewer agreed they would like to learn to play in future. Age appears to be a factor for a small proportion of people.

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Creative participation in music by adults - Participation - Music

Fifteen percent of Australian adults create music themselves – mostly playing instruments as a hobby

Fifteen percent of Australian adults create or play music themselves.

Australians who created music (15 percent), did so on average every four to five days (90 times a year).

Three quarters of music creators played a musical instrument (11 percent of all surveyed) an average of 113 times a year (every three to four days).

Nine in ten people that played a musical instrument did so as a hobby.

 

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Creative participation in music by children - Participation - Music
Tag : education

Australians agree that playing an instrument is fun, a good way of expressing yourself, and gives a sense of accomplishment.

One third of kids learn to play musical instruments outside of school, and 70% of adults end up wishing they had learned.

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Attendances at educational performances by major music organisations have decreased since 2006

The number of educational performances by Major Performing music organisations fell from 3,025 in 2006 to 2,687 in 2009, before returning to 2,950 in 2010.

In comparison, attendances also fell between 2006 and 2009 at an average rate of 5.5 percent each year between 2006 and 2009 (equivalent to 32 fewer attendances each year).

The number of attendances at educational music performances continued to fall in 2010 reflecting a 6.5 percent drop since 2009.

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Participation in music in the education system may not reflect broader participation rates

A 2005 National Review of School Music Education[1] reported that just 14.6 percent of year 12 students participated in music in 2004 – well below participation in other artforms such as general art/visual art/craft and performing arts/media.

Analysis at that time suggested that growth in music participation had not kept pace with growth in the number of students over time – with the participation rate falling from 16.4 percent in 1991 to 14.6 percent in 2004. Over a similar time period, participation in the performing arts grew from 24 percent in 1992 to 36 percent in 2004.

In NSW, more recent figures suggest that Year 10 music enrolments may be continuing on a downward trend, dropping from over 7,300 in 2010 to below 6,800 in 2010.

[1]   It is difficult to provide a reliable indication of music participation in the education system across Australia – largely due to different approaches to data collection across States and Territories.

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One fifth of children play a musical instrument outside of school – but girls’ participation is lower than boys’

In 2009, the ABS found that 20 percent of children aged 5-14 played a musical instrument outside of school. Of this proportion, 31 percent did so more than once a week in the 12 months up to 2009.

Playing a musical instrument was the most popular cultural activity for boys (19 percent). This also represented a significant increase in their participation since 2003 (13 percent).

Meanwhile, the most popular cultural activity for girls was dancing (26 percent).

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Many people lose interest and stop playing instruments in their teens

The Music Education Review noted high attrition rates in music participation in schools – with many students dropping out of music-related activities between Year 3 and Year 12.

A separate survey of 1,000 Australian households found the early teenage years to be the most vulnerable time when people stop paying their instruments, with 30 percent of lapsed players dropping out by age 12 and a further 30 percent by age 15.

Losing interest was the most commonly cited reason for stopping.

 

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Income and career development - Creation - Visual Arts
Tag : education

Australia’s 12,800 visual artists are well educated, with 90 percent undertaking formal training to become a professional artist.

Creative training is also valued outside the core arts sector: 20% of visual artists apply their artistic skills in creative industries such as advertising, design and architecture, and 20% apply their artistic skills in non-cultural sectors such as health.

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Visual artists are highly qualified and establish their practice through many years of formal training

Visual arts practitioners place a greater emphasis on formal training[1] than other professional artists, with 90 percent of visual artists and 87 percent of craft practitioners undergoing formal training to become a professional artist, compared to 77 percent of all artists. They are also the most likely of all practising artists to be still engaged in training, with a third indicating they are still in the process of establishing their careers.

More than two thirds of visual artists saw formal training as the most important type of training contributing to their professional career as opposed to private training (emphasised more by musicians) or learning on the job (emphasised more by writers).

[1]   Formal training is defined as training that leads to an award given by an institution such as a university or TAFE.

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Many visual arts graduates go on to careers outside the arts

In 2009, the ABS reported that almost 77,000 Australians aged 15 to 64 had a non-school[1] qualification in ‘visual art and crafts’.

Of those qualified in visual arts and craft, 36 percent had a qualification in Fine Arts, with other common qualifications including Photography (21 percent) and Crafts/jewellery-making/floristry (20 percent).

Whilst adopting a wider definition of ‘visual art and craft’ than other sources, these figures confirm that significant numbers of Australians are qualified in visual arts. The ABS estimates that the number qualified in ‘visual art and craft’ is similar to ‘architecture and urban design’, and above the performing arts.

When compared with estimates of those practising professionally, these figures suggest that many visual arts graduates go on to careers in other industries.

[1]   Non-school qualification refers to educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education.

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Visual arts graduates face challenging conditions entering the workforce

According to Graduate Careers Australia, just 53.9 percent of ‘Visual/Performing arts’ graduates are working full time four months after graduating – a lower proportion than all other fields of education reported.  The proportion has declined since 2007, when 66.9 percent of graduates were working full time. As shown in the graph below, the decline has been more marked than that seen for graduates in other fields.

Graduate Careers Australia also ranks ‘Art and Design’ as the 22nd field of education out of 23 in terms of starting salaries, just behind Pharmacy (pre-reg).

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